Pedestrian Crossing Islands

Located on the roadway between opposing lanes of traffic, pedestrian crossing islands separate pedestrians from vehicles at intersections or mid-block locations. They are typically raised medians or islands, though lower-cost versions can be made of pavement markings only. Crossing islands can also be referred to as center islands, refuge islands, or pedestrian islands. Guidance Provide … Continue reading Pedestrian Crossing Islands

Raised Crosswalks

A raised crosswalk is a higher section of pavement with a marked crosswalk. It is placed across the street to encourage drivers to slow down. Raised intersections usually have sloped ramps for the driver leading and following the flat raised-crosswalk section. Guidance Construct a 10–15’ plateau 2–3” shorter than sidewalk level with straight 6’ ramps … Continue reading Raised Crosswalks


To “daylight” an intersection is to clear sight lines between pedestrian crossings and oncoming cars, usually by creating no-parking zones at the curbs in front of crosswalks at that intersection. Guidance Install no-parking signs to mark the existence and length of no-parking zones Daylight at least 20′ (about one parking space) from the crosswalk at … Continue reading Daylighting

Analyze Person Delay Instead of Vehicle Delay

In Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) traffic analysis, “person delay” is defined as the total time required to move individuals, as opposed to their vehicles, through a particular lane of an intersection. This approach to analyzing traffic through intersections is more transit- (and pedestrian-) friendly than measuring vehicle delay. Guidance Calculate person delay by multiplying the … Continue reading Analyze Person Delay Instead of Vehicle Delay

Integrate Pedestrian LOS Criteria into Traffic Analyses

Traditional traffic analysis evaluates the adequacy of a road design to meet vehicular travel demand using a quantitative measurement of delay called level of service (LOS). For many years, traffic-analysis procedures didn’t adequately address pedestrian travel demand in these road-design evaluations. The current Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) addresses this analysis gap with new multimodal LOS … Continue reading Integrate Pedestrian LOS Criteria into Traffic Analyses

Collect Pedestrian Data

This refers to a systematic approach of counting pedestrians and walking activity within a defined area or jurisdiction. Data-collection methods are continually evolving but typically include manual counts, automatic recording technologies, origin-destination surveys, geographic-information-systems (GIS) analysis of census and land-use data, as well as intercept surveys. Databases of pedestrian information should catalog pedestrian crash locations … Continue reading Collect Pedestrian Data

Redesign Arterial Streets for Pedestrians

Arterial streets, typically multilane thoroughfares designed to speed cars from one destination to another, are often hazardous to people on foot. The Tri-State Transportation Campaign found that 60% of pedestrian deaths in the tri-state region of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut took place on arterial roadways. Redesigning arterial streets for pedestrians involves adapting roadway … Continue reading Redesign Arterial Streets for Pedestrians

Build Pedestrian and Cyclist Bridges

These are bridges designed exclusively for pedestrians and bicyclists where at-grade solutions can’t be found—often over railways, waterways, or highways— that provide needed transportation links for walkers and cyclists. Guidance Exhaust at-grade solutions first, as those are often more walkable and less expensive Locate bridges so that they are on the normal path of pedestrian … Continue reading Build Pedestrian and Cyclist Bridges

Turn Underutilized Asphalt into Grass and Other Uses

Underutilized, excessive roadway and/or parking space can be reassigned to pedestrian and/or bicycle uses. Underutilized or excessive roadways have more travel lanes (or parking spaces) than necessary for the number of cars using them. New uses of roadway or parking space could include public plazas with planters and seating areas, buffered bicycle lanes, and widened … Continue reading Turn Underutilized Asphalt into Grass and Other Uses

Create Slow Zones

Slow zones consist of engineered traffic-calming measures such as speed humps, roundabouts, curb extensions, signs, optimized signal timing, and street markings to slow vehicles down to 20 miles per hour (mph) within clearly defined areas. Guidance Begin by building support among a diverse set of stakeholders Consult with all relevant stakeholders, including emergency services, police, … Continue reading Create Slow Zones